Infrastructure systems, such as energy supply, water supply, transport and digital communications provide crucial services to society and underpin economic growth and sustainable development . National infrastructure systems are complex adaptive systems that exhibit key properties including diversity and adaptivity, dynamics, irreversibility and emergence across three hierarchical levels of agents, networks and systems . Consequently, the use of simulation models is well suited to examine these systems, their linkages and their behaviour over the long-term . In contrast to other approaches that have embedded an infrastructure system-of-systems approach into a common mathematical framework , the emphasis within the MISTRAL research programme, under which the simulation modelling integration framework (smif) was developed, is to couple new and existing infrastructure simulation models of the United Kingdom to support strategic long-term planning of national infrastructure.
The simulation model integration framework (smif) is a software tool that supports the configuration, coupling, running and orchestration of infrastructure simulation models as a system-of-systems. smif has been developed to support the coupling of detailed high-resolution engineering models of infrastructure systems at the national scale to explore infrastructure performance under alternative planning strategies and future scenarios. Models of transport, energy, solid waste, water supply and digital communications have been coupled using smif within the broader framing of the Infrastructure Transitions Research Consortium’s Assessment Process to build the second-generation National Infrastructure Systems Model (NISMOD 2). This builds on the work from the first ITRC programme which is described in .
Infrastructure simulation models, such as the Combined Gas and Electricity Network model – CGEN++ , the high-resolution energy demand model HIRE , the road transport model [9, 10] and the Cambridge Communications Assessment Model [12, 14] have been developed within the MISTRAL programme and used to assess the performance of their respective infrastructure systems over long time scales. The availability of infrastructure data differs across the sectors, and the spatial and temporal resolution at which the models are resolved is a function of both data availability and the properties of the system under examination. For example, the electricity supply system must meet demand continuously and is modelled at an hourly resolution with a representation of the United Kingdom’s transmission network as 29 busbars. In contrast, the digital communications model is concerned with the availability of bandwidth in a particular year and yet considers network upgrades at the building level. The road transport model simulates road congestion and trip time by assigning trip demand over the national road network for each hour in one representative working day. The mismatch between time and space is illustrated in Figure 1 and presents a set of distinct requirements that are not available in existing software solutions, such as the need to perform frequent spatial and temporal data transformations  within a model run.
Given the long timescales, large capital expenditure and path-dependency associated with developing infrastructure systems, each of the models is simulated over annual timesteps, allowing an exploration of the effect of different planning strategies upon the performance of the systems within each timestep. Combining the high spatial and temporal resolution simulation modelling with the coarser planning timesteps provides insights into the interconnected performance of these infrastructure systems into an uncertain future. To characterise future uncertainty, high resolution scenarios of the evolution of national population and demographics [15, 16], economic productivity, building stock  and environment  are propagated through the infrastructure simulation models.
The architecture of smif provides a consistent interface to each of the models by wrapping them in a Python class. While this requires some effort to configure and write a wrapper, the wrapped model is then an interoperable unit which can be easily included in one or more system-of-systems. Similarly, smif enables the development of Adaptors which perform additional data transformations between models which may require data in different units, categories or resolutions.
There are existing tools that provide some of the functionality required to simulate an infrastructure system-of-systems. These have provided inspiration during the development of smif, but also demonstrate the value that smif adds for the infrastructure systems community. For example, the OpenMI standard  provides the specifications for an interoperable modelling interface, is very technical and closely linked to the Java language and water modelling community. The Basic Model Interface  defines a set of functions to query, modify and run models using the Python Modelling Toolkit  written for the surface dynamics community. cylc  is a general workflow tool which manages the orchestration of dependent tasks. The focus of smif is to provide a layer above the orchestration of model simulation, so that infrastructure modellers can engage with the system-of-systems concepts that are relevant to them with smif handling the technical detail. For example, we observe that a system-of-systems model run unpacks into a directed-acyclic graph of processes as a function of the dependencies between models. This graph can subsequently be passed to an existing workflow tool or scheduler for orchestration. smif does provide a serial scheduler which will run models one at a time in an order that satisfies their dependencies.
smif is an open-source Python package, available to install through PyPI or conda-forge. Source code is available at https://github.com/nismod/smif/ and full documentation is at https://smif.readthedocs.io/en/latest/. As of publication, smif is in active use as the “glue” to support the integrated modelling work of a consortium of around 20 infrastructure systems researchers.
The classes in `smif.model` are concerned with configuring a system-of-systems. Several SectorModels compose a SosModel, and a fixed parameterisation of a SosModel comprises a repeatable ModelRun.
smif uses a plugin architecture to include simulation models. To add a new model to the smif model library, developer users write a Python wrapper class implementing SectorModel. These plugin wrappers are concerned with the mechanics of running each simulation model: passing in data and parameters; running the program or module; and parsing outputs to be passed back to smif.
The `smif.controller` module is concerned with running models: a ModelRunner alternates between requesting decisions from a decision module and requesting simulations from a scheduler, which resolves the model run order based on the data dependencies between models and calls out to run the models. Future extensions to smif could add extra schedulers or workflow libraries, including cylc as mentioned previously.
An example project is available to demonstrate features of smif. It can be generated on the command line in the current folder using the command `smif setup`. The command `smif --help` shows available commands; `smif list` shows available model runs and `smif run energy_central` runs a model run, with results saved to the results directory. `smif app` runs the user interface server, which is then accessible in a browser on http://localhost:5000/.
Cross-platform 64-bit (currently tested on Windows Server 2012 R2 and Ubuntu Trusty 14.04, in use on Windows/Mac/Linux).
pywin32; sys_platform == ‘win32’
Will Usher, University of Oxford
Tom Russell, University of Oxford
Roald Schoenmacher, University of Oxford
Craig Robson, University of Newcastle
Persistent identifier: DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1309336
Publisher: Will Usher; Tom Russell; Roald Lemmen; Craig Robson
Version published: v1.0.2
Date published: 11/02/2019
Date published: 28/08/2016
The core focus of smif is the infrastructure system-of-systems community. The most obvious opportunities for reuse reside within this community and include incremental extensions to the existing uses. For example, adjacent to geography and systems engineering, various disciplines could interact with coupled infrastructure systems modelling:
However, smif provides general functionality that enables any model that can be run from a Python subprocess to be configured, wrapped and coupled with one or more other configured and wrapped models. In its current form, the software can couple small- to medium-sized simulation models which run over aggregate timesteps, with data exchange occurring after each timestep, where data may consist of multiple variables, each with multiple dimensions. The framework includes features for models whose multi-dimensional input and output data may be linked to vector-based geometries, and where data may need to be transformed as it is transferred between coupled models. If users do not have a need for the modularity and interoperability that smif enables through wrapping models with a consistent interface, the cost of doing so may outweigh the benefit. In this case, it may be better to use a workflow tool.
There are a number of opportunities to extend the framework that would enable a greater number of modelling paradigms to make use of the framework. A full list of these are stored in the repository wiki, but highlights include: generalising the treatment of time to distinguish between aggregate “decision timesteps” and higher resolution “operational timesteps”; and implementing additional backing data stores to enable better I/O performance when running models.
The developers may be contacted through the repository on GitHub. We would welcome pull requests and additional development effort. Ad-hoc support is available through to mid-2020 via the GitHub issue tracker and will revert at the end of the ITRC-MISTRAL project to the open-source and researcher community.
Sam Chorlton, STFC.
Jim Hall, University of Oxford.
The authors have no competing interests to declare.
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